What are the radiation in life?

Not long ago, Danish middle school students said that WiFi radiation affected the germination of cress seeds. The reporter interviewed experts found that the experiment was not rigorous, and the normal use of WiFi did not have to worry about radiation.

For a while, radiation has drawn attention. In addition to WiFi, watching TV, using a microwave oven, will it be excessively radiated? Will printers and computer radiation affect fetal development? The telecommunications signal transmission base station is built near the residential building. Is the radiation large? Are these items harmful to health? The reporter continued to investigate and interviewed many experts and scholars from the Mainland and Hong Kong.

What are the radiation in life?

Including ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation is often contacted in life.

"The radiation in life is everywhere. To understand whether radiation is harmful or not, we must first know that radiation is divided into ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation." Associate Professor Liang Shirong from the Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, the energy derived from radiation depends on the frequency. High and low, the higher the frequency, the greater the energy. The energy of ionizing radiation can ionize atoms and molecules, while low-energy non-ionizing radiation does not.

Dr. He Xiaoxia, director of the Institute for Environmental Studies in Darwin, said that in a broad sense, radiation refers to the process of energy propagation in space. Ionizing radiation, including nuclear radiation, X-rays, neutron radiation, etc., is a major hazard; non-ionizing radiation, including ultraviolet light, visible light, mobile phones, computers, high-voltage lines, substations, mobile phone base stations, television broadcasts, etc., is less harmful. What is commonly referred to as "electromagnetic radiation" is non-ionizing radiation.

He Xiaoxia said that the public sometimes confuses "electromagnetic radiation" with "ionizing radiation", which creates misunderstandings and brings certain panic.

According to Shi Taoyong, an expert in the network department of China Mobile Hubei Company, and Guo Liping, an associate professor at the School of Physics Science and Technology of Wuhan University, the daily contact is non-ionizing radiation, which mainly includes: mobile phones, computers, wireless routers, cordless phones, microwave ovens, Yuba, Refrigerators, induction cookers, electric blankets, hair dryers, printers, photocopiers, high-speed rail, power grid base stations, communication base stations, high-voltage towers, etc. CT, X-ray, chest-transparent, etc., which people come into contact with when they seek medical care, are ionizing radiation.

Is radiation harmful to health?

Non-ionizing radiation energy is low, no need to worry too much; high-speed rail, subway belongs to such radiation

How to determine whether radiation is harmful to human body? Zhao Yufeng, consultant of the National Indoor Environment and Indoor Environmental Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, said that in non-ionizing radiation, according to China's "Electromagnetic Radiation Protection Regulations", as long as the actual measured radiation intensity is within the exposure limit, it is safe.

Prof. Li Liyun, a professor at the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine at the University of Hong Kong, a clinical oncologist at the Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong and a member of the Hong Kong Radiation Board, said: "Non-ionizing radiation, including electromagnetic radiation, has very low energy and people do not have to worry too much." Central data show that non-ionizing radiation energy is low enough to alter the chemical properties of the substance. Excessive ionizing radiation may be teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic.

The radiation of a single appliance does not exceed the standard. If multiple appliances are used at the same place at the same time, will it cause radiation superimposition and cause risks?

Professor Li Yunyun said that these radiations are very small, and the radiation of each item is different. It cannot be superimposed like an apple plus an orange to measure the total weight. The Hong Kong Environment Bureau also said that there is no international study that the level of electromagnetic fields generated by the simultaneous use of different household electrical products or communication equipment can endanger human health.

Don't worry about electrical appliances, then some large-scale equipment, such as signal transmission base stations of telecom companies, substations of power companies, etc., will it be harmful to health?

According to the Hong Kong Communications Authority, radio frequency electromagnetic fields generated by radio base stations are also low-energy non-ionizing radiation.

For example, Prof. Li Yunyun said that Hong Kong is densely populated and crowded. It is impossible to avoid high-voltage cables, transmitting base stations and substations to be close to work and places of residence. However, there is no high incidence of cancer in Hong Kong. “There is no research literature showing that such radiation does pose a health hazard,” Professor Yan said.

According to Su Jinliang, Director of Business and Economic Development of the Hong Kong Government, there are currently more than 26,000 radio base stations in Hong Kong, of which about 60% are located on rooftops or external walls of residential or commercial buildings. The Hong Kong Communications Authority said that in the past three years, the Hong Kong Government has received about 350 complaints about radiation problems at residential base stations, but no base stations have been relocated or removed due to violations of radiation safety standards.

He Xiaoxia said that before the construction of large-scale equipment, environmental impact assessment will be carried out to ensure that the overall level of electromagnetic fields around does not exceed safety standards. The "2012 China State of the Environment Bulletin" shows that the power frequency electric field strength and magnetic induction intensity of environmental sensitive points around the transmission and transformation facilities in China are lower than the limits of the "Technical Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of 500kV EHV Transmission and Transformation Projects". The electromagnetic radiation level of the environmental sensitive points around the antenna of the mobile communication base station is also lower than the limit of the "Electromagnetic Radiation Protection Regulations".

Some people are worried that high-speed rail radiation will affect the health of passengers and residents along the route. Shi Taoyong said: "The radiation of high-speed rail is low-frequency electromagnetic induction, and passengers receive little radiation inside and outside the high-speed rail." Liang Shirong's team tested background electromagnetic radiation for the Hong Kong subway. . Test data shows that the maximum radiation value is lower than the limit in the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICINRP) guidelines.

Is the radiation protection trick reliable?

Most of them are commercial marketing gimmicks, most of which have no scientific basis; experts believe that there is no need for radiation.

In some people's eyes, the prickly pear and the agave are the “anti-radiation devices” of the office. The radiation-proof vest is a “standard configuration” for pregnant women, but Professor Yan believes that “these equipments are meaningless” and only the lead clothing can block radiation. But the use of bulky lead clothing in the office is clearly out of place.

In response to various methods related to radiation prevention in the market, Shi Taoyong said, "Many of the arguments are ridiculous, purely commercial marketing gimmicks, and there is no scientific basis." Some people say that radiation can cause skin aging, and now there are anti-radiation cosmetics on the market. "These are all fake things," said Professor Yan.

In fact, many experts do not oppose reasonable precautions, but oppose demonization of radiation. Although there is no comprehensive evidence that electromagnetic waves are harmful to humans, it is best to reduce the electromagnetic waves in the environment to a lower level. Professor Yan said that for radiation-containing items, there is a principle of “radiation protection and safety optimization”. “For example, if you use a lot of mobile phones, you can take some methods, use long-line headphones, and don’t put them next to your head when sleeping. Reduce the worries caused by fears.” Zhao Yufeng suggested buying electronic products produced by regular companies, paying attention to the radiation data in the test reports of microwave ovens, induction cookers, desktop computers, etc., and comparing them with safety standards. Professor Liang suggested keeping the proper distance between home and office equipment and appliances. Pregnant women, children, and the elderly with low resistance should avoid excessive radiation to prevent possible effects. "In short, in the face of the common non-ionizing radiation in life, we must adopt a scientific attitude. We should not be indifferent or arrogant, actively prevent and treat it rationally."

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